Skin is losing moisture! How to keep it hydrated?
The three important indicators for maintaining the hydrobalance of the skin:
- maintenance of NMF
- lipid barrier integrity
- activity of aquaporins – let’s talk about them in more detail.
By the way, it was the discovery of aquaporins and the principles of their functioning that was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2003.
Aquaporins: what are they?
Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that are responsible for the transport and distribution of moisture in tissues. That is, these are basically water channels or water pores. Cell permeability for water directly depends on the number of aquaporins in the membrane.
One of the reasons for excessive dryness of the skin may be just a decrease in the function of aquaporins in the epidermis.
Aquaporins are found in all cells of the internal organs, blood and brain of humans and other mammals. Today, 13 types of aquaporins are known, which are classified by numbers: AQP 0-12. Among them are those that transport only water (AQP 1, 2, 4, 5, 8) and those that can also carry other substances, such as glycerol or natural moisturizing factor (NMF) (primarily urea) (AQP 3, 7, 9, 10, 11).
Types of aquaporins in human skin
Several types of aquaporins are present in human skin. AQP-1 is in melanocytes, dermal vascular endothelium, and dermal fibroblasts. AQP-5 is in sweat gland cells. Preadipocytes contain AQP-7 and AQP-9. AQP-9 and AQP-10 were found in epidermal keratinocytes and monocytes.
Type 3 aquaporins (AQP-3) predominate in epidermal cells; therefore, special attention should be paid to their activity.
Aquaporins-3 (AQP-3) were first found in the membrane of human epidermal keratinocytes as early as in 1998.
Their other name is aquaglyceroporins, since they are permeable to water and glycerol. Aquaglyceroporins provide selective transport of fluid through biological membranes.
AQP-3 is produced by all living layers of the epidermis, from stratum basale to stratum granulosum, and disappears in the stratum corneum. Their distribution varies from 10-15% in the upper layers of the skin to 70-75% in the deep, living layers.
The decrease in the number of Aquaporins-3 is facilitated by:
- exposure to ultraviolet radiation (permanent insolation)
- acidic environment (for example, acid peels)
Studies show that AQP-3 synthesis decreases significantly with age and UV exposure. In addition, water aquaporin channels are sensitive to acid balance – they are inhibited by acidic pH, which also increases the impermeability of the barrier on the skin surface. Therefore, the use of acid peels affects the reduction of AQP-3.
Why is the stimulation of Aquaporins-3 so important?
With an aquaporins deficiency, the level of skin hydration and elasticity is noticeably reduced, and the restoration of the skin barrier slows down. Decrease in AQP-3 level can not only trigger photodamage, but also exacerbate signs of chronobiological skin aging. For this, cosmetics are being developed with special ingredients that stimulate the activity of AQP-3 and increase their level in the epidermis.
The most effective cosmetic components to stimulate AQP-3:
- AQUAXYL complex – to increase the level of aquaporins in the skin
- HYDRAPORINE complex – to maintain osmobalance in conditions of reduced functioning of aquaporins.
It is these components that are the main ones in HYDRA-HELP MASK from reNeo cosmetics. Probably everyone has already tried this mask! How can you do without it at all?
- climate change
- aggressive cosmetic procedures
- peeling and irritation of the skin
This is the best remedy for restoring the hydrobalance of the skin!